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The U.S. tax code allows for a tax deduction for the recovery of the cost of tangible property over the useful life of the property- including solar arrays.
Qualifying solar energy equipment is eligible for a cost recovery period of five years.
For equipment on which an Investment Tax Credit (ITC) or a 1603 Treasury Program grant is claimed, the owner must reduce the project’s depreciable basis by one-half the value of the 30% ITC. This means the owner is able to deduct 85 percent of his or her tax basis.
In response to the economic downturn of 2008, Congress took action to further incentivize capital investment by accelerating the depreciation schedule economy-wide. The Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 allowed companies to claim a 100% depreciation bonus on qualifying capital equipment purchased and placed in service by December 31, 2011. Congress included an extension of 50% bonus depreciation in early 2013 in the so-called “fiscal cliff” deal, which was scheduled to expire at the end of 2013. Under 50% bonus depreciation, in the first year of service, companies could elect to depreciate 50% of the basis while the remaining 50% is depreciated under the normal MACRS recovery period. At the end of 2014, Congress passed a retroactive extension of 50% depreciation such that companies that placed qualifying equipment in service through December 31, 2014 were eligible for 50% bonus depreciation.
In December 2015, Congress passed the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015, which included a 5-year extension of bonus depreciation, including a phase-out that is structured as follows: 2015-2017: 50% bonus depreciation; 2018: 40%; 2019: 30%, 2020 and beyond: 0%.